Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: The Case of Marine Parks in the Caribbean

Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: The Case of Marine Parks in the Caribbean

Primary Country: Netherlands Antilles
Ecosystem: coral reef
Sample Value Estimates:
  1. $27.40 / person / year: WTP for proposed annual user fee for divers at Bonaire Marine Park
  2. $17.40 / person / year: CS per diver
  3. $325,000 / year: aggregate annual CS
  4. 1115.62 USD/ha/yr: Values shown were provided by partner databases. ESVD values are from a derived data set. This value point is for Tourism
Methodology: contingent valuation
Region: Americas
Data source: NOAA's Coral Reef Valuation Database

Publication information

Dixon, J. Scura, L.van't Hof, T. “Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: The Case of Marine Parks in the Caribbean” Washington, DC: The World Bank., 1993

Addtional Notes

Carrynig capacity for Bonaire Marine Park was estimated to be between 4,000 and 6,000 dives per year per site. 92% were WTP $10. 80% were WTP $20, 48% $30 and 16% $50. User fees can pay for operating costs ($150,000) with some funds left over for contingencies (user fees would bring in $187,000--18,700 divers times $10 per diver).Report

Dixon, J. A.//Scura, L. F.//van't Hof, T.

2/1993

Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: The Case of Marine Parks in the Caribbean

Washington, DC: The World Bank. Prepared for the Second Conference on the Ecology and Biodiversity Loss of the Beijer Institute, July 29-31, 1992, Stockholm, Sweden.21 pp.

marine parks/Caribbean/recreation/tourism/review of literature/scuba diving/carrying capacity/coral reefs/user fees

Report provides a review of the lieterature for the Caribbean and discusses the theorectically correct measures needed for assessing the economics of marine protected areas or parks. Carrynig capacity for Bonaire Marine Park was estimated to be between 4,000 and 6,000 dives per year per site. A site is defined as 9 hectares. Literature is then summarized to assess the benefits and costs of Bonaire Marine Park. The results of a survey of scuba divers willingness to pay an annual user fee is also summarized. The study finds that user fees can pay for Bonaire Marine Park operating costs ($150,000) with some funds left over for contingencies (user fees would bring in $187,000--18,700 divers times $10 per diver). Consumer's Surplus Consumer's surplus was estimated using the contingent valuation method. The valuation context was scuba divers willigness to pay for a proposed annual user fee for Bonaire Marine Park. Scuba divers were first asked if they thought the proposed $10 per diver per year fee was reasonable, and if so would they be willing to pay it. 92 percent agreed the user fee was reasonable and were willing to pay the proposed rate of $10/diver/year. Visitors were then asked at what level would they find the admission fee unreasonable. Respondents were all asked the following fee amounts: $20, $30, $50 and $100. 80 percent were willing to pay $20, 48 percent were willing to pay $30 and 16 percent were willing to pay $50. The author did not report the response to the $100 amount. The average willingness to pay was $27.40. The difference between the aveage willingness to pay and the proposed $10 fee was interpreted as consumer's surplus.

Willigness to pay for annual user fee for Bonaire Marine Park. Asked if repondent willing to pay proposed $10 fee. 92 percent agreed the user fee was reasonable and were willing to pay the proposed rate of $10/diver/year. Visitors were then asked at what level would they find the admission fee unreasonable. A simple payment card amounts of $20, $30, $50 and $100 was used. 80 percent were willing to pay $20, 48 percent were willing to pay $30 and 16 percent were willing to pay $50. The author did not report the response to the $100 amount. The average willingness to pay was $27.40. The difference between the aveage willingness to pay and the proposed $10 fee was interpreted as consumer's surplus.

Bonaire Marine Park, Netherlands Antilles (Caribbean Sea)

coral reefs

Scuba diving

Survey of scuba divers by Scura and van't Hof for user fees.

1992

1991 17,000 divers per year at $10/diver/year or $170,000 in user fee revenue 1992 18,700 divers per year at $10/diver/year or $187,000 in user fee revenue

Per diver per year: Average Willingness to Pay User Fee $27.40 minus $10 user fee charged or $17.40 in consumer's surplus per diver per year. Annual Consumer's Surplus: 18,700 divers times $17.40 per diver or $325,000

On-site survey of scuba divers from previous study.

Contingent Valuation question using user fees as the payment vehicle. Respondent first asked if they think $10 per diver per year fee being proposed is reasonable and if so, were they willing to pay it. 92 percent were willing to pay the $10 per diver per year fee. Respondent were then asked at what level they would find the admission fee to be unreasonable. Values were $20, $30, $50 and $100. 80 percent were willing to pay $20, 48 percent were willing to pay $30, and 16 percent were willing to pay $50. The report doesn't say what percent were willing to pay $100. The sample average willingness to pay was $27.40. The difference between the average willingness to pay and the $10 fee to be charged was interpreted as consumer's surplus.

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Scuba divers in Bonaire Marine Park, Netherlands AntillesBob Leeworthy

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