Ecology and Microeconomics as 'Joint Products': The Bonaire Marine Park in the Caribbean

Ecology and Microeconomics as 'Joint Products': The Bonaire Marine Park in the Caribbean

Primary Country: Netherlands Antilles
Ecosystem: coral reef
Sample Value Estimates:
  1. US$23 million annually : Total annual gross revenue generated through dive-based tourism at Bonaire Marine Park
  2. $.52 million: direct costs of protection
  3. $0.15 million / year. : recurring costs of protection
Methodology: revenue data
Region: Americas
Data source: NOAA's Coral Reef Valuation Database

Publication information

Dixon, J. Scuba, L.van't Hof, T. “Ecology and Microeconomics as 'Joint Products': The Bonaire Marine Park in the Caribbean” Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers., 1995

Addtional Notes

Sample of 79 scuba divers. Indirect costs and opportunity costs were unable to be estimated. Book

Dixon, John A.

Scuba, Louis F.

Van't Hof, Tom

1995

"Ecology and Microeconomics as 'Joint Products': The Bonaire Marine Park in the Caribbean."Biodiversity ConservationKluwer Academic Publishers

Netherlands

127-145

Joint products/Caribbean/Dive

In a number of locations, especially in the Caribbean, the development of marine protected areas and scuba diving and other water-sport tourism have gone hand-in-hand. These activities - conservation and tourism - are potentially a 'joint product' of the protected area system. This chapter explores the extent to which this joint production is a reasonable and feasible development option. It also explores the situation where the intensity of recreational use begins to result in degradation of the marine resource, thereby leading to a potential downward spiral of both decreasing ecosystem healthy and falling revenues. A recent study of the Bonaire Marine Park, in which information on reef stress is used to develop indicators of potential carrying capacity, is presented to illustrate the issue. Studies showed that coral cover has decreased significantly at the heavily dived sites. Additionally, it found that a higher species diversity is maintained at intermediate levels of physical stress or disturbance as ecological 'niches' are opened up that new species occupy. As stress increases, however, species diversity declines. The apparent threshold stress level is between 4000 to 6000 dives per year per site (with moorings spaced 600 m apart). Revenue Estimates: Total gross revenue generated through dive-based tourism: US$23 million annually. Costs of Protection: Direct costs: $.52 million

annual recurring costs: $.15 million. Indirect costs and opportunity costs were unable to be estimated. ($1991). Revenue Estimates: Total gross revenue generated through dive-based tourism: US$23 million annually. Costs of Protection: Direct costs: $.52 million

annual recurring costs: $.15 million. Indirect costs and opportunity costs were unable to be estimated. ($1991). Welfare estimate: WTP for park management: $27.40/diver/year ($1991)

Total CS: $960,000/year ($1991)

CS and WTP of divers for coral reef protection is estimated using a survey of divers and photoanalysis of the reef in Bonaire Park.

Bonaire National Park, Bonaire, CaribbeanScuba Diving/ Tourism1992

Total gross revenue generated through dive-based tourism: US$23 million annually. Costs of Protection: Direct costs: $.52 million

annual recurring costs: $.15 million. Indirect costs and opportunity costs were unable to be estimated. ($1991)

WTP for park management: $27.40/diver/year ($1991)

Total CS: $960,000/year ($1991)

Survey

photoanalysis

Survey of scuba divers to determine their perceptions of the present condition of the park and their rating of selected parameters in comparison to other Caribbean areas or to the condition of BMP in the past. A photoanalysis was also carried out to analyze coral cover and species diversity.

79

Scuba Divers

Divers who had logged 100 dives or less on Bonair (38), and those who had logged more (41)

Kim Barry

Information provided when available, for more information please visit the original database or PDF.