Accounting for Ethnicity in Recreation Demand: A Flexible Count Data Approach

Accounting for Ethnicity in Recreation Demand: A Flexible Count Data Approach

Primary Country: United States
Ecosystem: multiple
Sample Value Estimates:
  1. $121 / person / trip: CS per trip to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary for hispanics
  2. $757 / per person / trip: for whites
Methodology: travel cost method
Region: Americas / Gulf of Mexico
Data source: NOAA's Coral Reef Valuation Database

Publication information

Bowker, J. Leeworthy, V. “Accounting for Ethnicity in Recreation Demand: A Flexible Count Data Approach” Journal of Leisure Research 30(1): 64-78, 1998

Addtional Notes

Sample size was 1546. The model is extended with a varying parameter adaptation to test the congruency of demand and economic values across white and Hispanic user groups. Findings indicate significant differences in price response leading to divergent per-trip consumer's surplus and price elasticity between the two groups. These differences raise important distribution and equity concerns with respect to the possible future use of pricing policies like user fees.Journal

Bowker, J. M.//Leeworthy, V. R.

1998

Accounting for Ethnicity in Recreation Demand: A Flexible Count Data ApproachJournal of Leisure Research

30

1pp. 64-78

ethnicity/travel cost/price response/consumer's surplus/user fees/equity/count-data

The article examines ethnicity and individual trip taking behavior associated with natural resource based recreation in the Florida Keys. Trip demand is estimated using the travel cost method. The model is extended with a varying parameter adaptation to test the congruency of demand and economic values across white and Hispanic user groups. Findings indicate significant differences in price response leading to divergent per-trip consumer's surplus and price elasticity between the two groups. These differences raise important distribution and equity concerns with respect to the possible future use of pricing policies like user fees. The travel cost model is used to derive per-trip or per person-trip consumer's surplus values. For demonstrating the different effects on Hispanic visitors, only the summer sample of visitors was used. Also, the results are limited for application to the valuation of coral reefs because there is no way to separate out coral reef habitats from other habitat uses. Values apply to the entire Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary ecosystem (See Leeworthy and Bowker, 1997 in this database). Price Elasticity of Hispanic Visitors: -0.9378 Price Elasticity of White Visitors: -0.6555 Consumer's Surplus Per Person-trip (Hispanics): $121 Consumer's Surplus Per Person-trip (Whites): $757Monroe County, Florida (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary)

All habitats in Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

All natural resource based avtivities

On-site survey of visitors to Florida Keys June-November 1995

June-November 1995Per Person-trip (Hispanics): $121 Per Person-trip (Whites): $757

On-site interviews

Travel cost model using Truncated Negative Binomial Model with slope and intercept dummy variables for Hispanic visitors.

1546

Summer visitors to the Florida Keys that engaged in natural resource based activities.

Sample stratified by season (Summer: June-November 1995 and Winter: December 1995 - May 1996), by Region of the Florida Keys (Upper Keys, Middle Keys, Lower Keys and Key West), and by sites within each region. Sites selected using local knowledge. Sample compared with additional sample stratified by access (e.g. auto, air and cruise ship) which was used to develop population estimates of use. Sample comparisons yielded no significant difference between samples, indicating local knowledge used for stratifying sample was successful in getting representative sample of visitors.

Bob Leeworthy

Information provided when available, for more information please visit the original database or PDF.